In 1993, the bloody conflict in Indian-controlled Kashmir was in its fourth year. Indian troops had embarked on a "catch and kill" campaign against Muslim militants, resulting in a sharp escalation of human rights abuses. PHR and Human Rights Watch provided comprehensive documentation of the consequences of India's abusive policy in Kashmir in this report.
While fighting with Muslim insurgents in Kashmir who demand independence or accession to Pakistan, Indian troops are increasingly targeting civilians. PHR and Asia Watch investigated these efforts to crush support for the guerrilla forces, especially the military's torture of detainees and the government's targeting of health professionals.
One year after a bloodless coup toppled Thailand's government and the military took control, protestors staged a rally and demanded freedom. The government responded with violence. PHR's investigation revels the truth behind allegations of excessive force and violations of medical neutrality.
The war in Somalia in the 1990s resulted in catastrophic famine, failed government, and a devastating legacy of land mines left from the civil war in the North. These added significantly to the economic devastation there, and were a principal obstacle in the way of repatriation of hundreds of thousands of refugees who fled to Ethiopia from northern Somalia during the civil war.
In December 1991, Middle East Watch and Physicians for Human Rights sent a delegation to northern Iraq to observe and assist in the exhumation, identification, and determination of probable cause and manner of death of individuals interred in mass and single, unmarked graves.