This report examines the wars in the former Yugoslavia through the prism of medical neutrality. Hospitals and clinics in or near conflict zones were deliberately and often repeatedly attacked. Patients and medical staff were shot at by snipers, and, in at least one case, forcibly removed from hospital wards and summarily executed.
This report documents that physicians continue to be involved in executions, in violation of ethical and professional codes of conduct. This involvement is often mandated by state law and specified in departmental regulations about execution procedures.
In 1993, the bloody conflict in Indian-controlled Kashmir was in its fourth year. Indian troops had embarked on a "catch and kill" campaign against Muslim militants, resulting in a sharp escalation of human rights abuses. PHR and Human Rights Watch provided comprehensive documentation of the consequences of India's abusive policy in Kashmir in this report.
While fighting with Muslim insurgents in Kashmir who demand independence or accession to Pakistan, Indian troops are increasingly targeting civilians. PHR and Asia Watch investigated these efforts to crush support for the guerrilla forces, especially the military's torture of detainees and the government's targeting of health professionals.
One year after a bloodless coup toppled Thailand's government and the military took control, protestors staged a rally and demanded freedom. The government responded with violence. PHR's investigation revels the truth behind allegations of excessive force and violations of medical neutrality.