Libya Conflict Timeline
APPENDIX A from Witness to War Crimes: Evidence from Misrata, Libya
- 15 February 2011: Libyan families of prisoners killed in 1996 hold protest in Benghazi over incarceration of Fethi Tarbel, a lawyer representing them. 
- 17 February 2011: Protestors, organized by social media, hold “day of rage” featuring demonstrations commemorating 2006 usage of lethal force against protestors assaulting the Italian embassy. 
- 23 February 2011: Muammar Qaddafi vows to crush all protests, claiming that demonstrators are led by Islamists and other extreme factions.
- 1 March 2011: United Nations General Assembly unanimously suspends Libya from Human Rights Council after an estimated 1,000 protestors had been killed by Qaddafi. 
- 6 March 2011: Qaddafi forces attack Misrata for the first time in a series of quick attacks lasting half of the day. 
- 17 March 2011: After requests by the Arab League and Libyan rebels, the United Nations Security Council (Resolution 1973) authorizes a no-fly zone over Libya, specifically Benghazi, in order to prevent further casualties (United States operation called “Odyssey Dawn”). Luis Moreno-Ocampo opens ICC investigation on Qaddafi and his entourage. 
- 24 March 2011: The United States hands over control of the Libyan no-fly zone to NATO (“Operation Unified Protector”).
- 7 April 2011: NATO airstrikes accidently kill 13 rebels in Ajdabiya. This adds to the friendly fire total where the in previous week, 13 rebels including 3 medical students were killed by coalition forces. 
- 12 April 2011: Due to reports of stranded migrants in Misrata, the International Organization of Migration begins evacuations by sea. 
- 15 April 2011: Presidents Barack Obama and Nicholas Sarkozy, as well as Prime Minister David Cameron call for an increased presence in Libya, with more airstrikes and a goal of ultimately removing Qaddafi from power.  Human Rights Watch announces that Qaddafi forces have been using cluster munitions in Misrata. 
- 23 April 2011: Save the Children reports that children are being subjected to sexual assault by Qaddafi forces in Libya. The agency, along with other human rights groups, conducts a 13 day investigation into the accusations. 
- 30 April 2011: NATO airstrikes kill Qaddafi’s youngest son and three grandchildren. The attack prompts assaults by angry Qaddafi Libyans on Western embassies including the burning of the British consulate in Tripoli. 
- 2 May 2011: Qaddafi forces bomb the city of Misrata, preventing ships carrying humanitarian aid into the city.
- 6 May 2011: Amnesty International claims that Qaddafi forces committed war crimes in the city of Misrata by indiscriminately using cluster bombs, snipers and artillery in heavily populated civilian areas.
- 16 May 2011: International Criminal Court Prosecutor Luis Moreno-Ocampo calls for the arrest of Muammar Qaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam and intelligence agency head Abdullah al-Sanussi for crimes against humanity. Moreno-Ocampo claims that Qaddafi had ordered the shooting of unarmed protestors.
- 17 May 2011: Qaddafi forces fire rockets at rebels near Tunisian border which prompts Tunisia to report the action to the United Nations. 
- 23 May 2011: Psychologist Siham Sergewa claims that Qaddafi forces used rape as a weapon of war. Siham based her conclusion on a visit to refugee camps on the Libyan-Tunisian border where she collected evidence of rape which she shared with the International Criminal Court.  Andrew Harding of the BBC interviewed Qaddafi soldiers who claimed they had been forced to rape women in Misrata and that it had been a policy of the army. 
- 29 May 2011: A survey by Sergew indicates that thousands of Libyans are suffering from PTSD. The ICC corroborates her testimony that rape was used as a weapon of war.
- 1 June 2011: NATO decides to extend airstrikes for an additional 90 days.  UN human rights investigators release a report which alleges that both the Qaddafi regime and rebel forces are guilty of war crimes. 
- 7 June 2011: Qaddafi government claims that 31 civilians are killed by NATO airstrikes. 
- 8 June 2011: Qaddafi forces shell Misrata, killing ten rebels. 
- 9 June 2011: ICC investigator Luis Moreno-Ocampo reports that Qaddafi ordered mass rapes and distributed Viagra-like substances to soldiers. 
- 16 June 2011: President Obama sends a report to the United States Congress outlining the legal justification of U.S. involvement in Libya. 
- 17 June 2011: The U.N. Human Rights Council extended the mandate for investigating abuses in Libya until the end of 2011. 
- 18 June 2011: NATO claims that Qaddafi forces are using mosques and other civilian in order hide military targets.  Rebels in Misrata claim to possess documents that exhibit war crimes on the part of Qaddafi. 
- 19 June 2011: NATO acknowledges that airstrikes killed a number of civilians in Tripoli.  Rebels in Derna unearthed a mass grave which they claim shows atrocities committed by Qaddafi’s government. 
- 23 June 2011: Qaddafi in a speech on state television accused NATO of being murderers for an air strike that killed 19 civilians. 
- 27 June 2011: The International Criminal Court issues an arrest warrant against Qaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam, and his spy chief Abdullah Senussi, on indictments of committing crimes against humanity. 
- 12 July 2011: Human Rights Watch condemns accounts of the rebels’ pillaging and damaging of businesses, civilian homes, and hospitals in mountain towns recently captured by the rebels, including the town of Al-Qawalish. 
- 20 July 2011: Five decapitated or brutally disposed corpses in Gaddafi uniforms are found between Zintan and Al-Qawalish. Rebels claim Qaddafi forces killed the men for being suspected as defectors, but investigations are ongoing. 
- 28 July 2011: Rebel military chief Abdul Fattah Younis, who defected from Qaddafi’s government, is killed en route to Benghazi after allegedly being summoned for questioning.  Circumstances of the death remain unclear, as rebel leaders report different details of the assassination. 
- 5 August 2011: Rebels claim Qaddafi’s youngest son Khamis died in a NATO strike on Zlitan, but the Qaddafi regime refutes these allegations by airing recent footage of him on TV. 
- 9 August 2011: Qaddafi’s government reports that a NATO strike over Majer, a small mountain village south of Zlitan, kills 85 civilians, including 33 children.  NATO officials deny the claims, stating that the air strikes killed army men, not civilians. 
- 10 August 2011: The International Committee of the Red Cross issues a report condemning medical neutrality violations in armed conflicts, citing Libya as a prominent example of such violations. 
- 21 August 2011: Rebels capture Green Square in Tripoli and surround Qaddafi’s compound. 
- 22 August 2011: Opposition forces control 85% of Tripoli.  Some 15,000 detainees in Tripoli are released. 
 Clashes Erupt as Libya Braces for “Day of Anger”, AFP, 16 Feb. 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5joXWpcbCKxSO2oZgTYYVdwEZPBTA?docId=CNG.603a9efadd0bcd2842eeb2db6ed43c73.101.
 Timeline: Libya’s Uprising Against Muammar Gaddafi, Reuters, 21 Mar. 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/03/21/us-libya-timeline-idUSTRE72K41V20110321.
 Bill Varner, UN General Assembly Suspends Libya from Human Rights Panel, Bloomberg, 1 Mar. 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-01/un-general-assembly-suspends-libya-from-human-rights-council.html.
Interview with key informant no. 28 in Kerzaz, Libya (9 Jun. 2011).
 Security Council Authorizes “All Necessary Measures’ to Protect Civilians in Libya, U.N. News Centre, 17 Mar. 2011, http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=37808.
 LIBYA: Timeline of Key Events Since 4 April, IRIN, 14 Jun. 2011, http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=92970.
 Allegra Stratton, Obama, Cameron & Sarkozy: No Let-up in Libya Until Gaddafi Departs, The Guardian, 15 Apr. 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/15/obama-sarkozy-cameron-libya#history-link-box.
 Libya: Cluster Munitions Strike Misrata, Human Rights Watch, 15 Apr. 2011, http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2011/04/15/libya-cluster-munitions-strike-misrata.
 David Batty, Libyan Children Suffering Rape, Aid Agency Reports, The Guardian, 23 Apr. 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/23/libyan-children-suffering-rape?intcmp=239.
 NATO Strike Kills Qaddafi Son, Spares Leader, AP, 30 Apr. 2011, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2011/04/30/501364/main20058730.shtml.
 Libyan Forces Target Rebels Near Tunisian Border, VOA News, 14 Jun. 2011, http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/libya/2011/libya-110614-voa01.htm.
 Sara Sidner & Amir Ahmed, Psychologist: Proof of Hundreds of Rape Cases During Libya’s War, CNN, 23 May 2011, http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/05/23/libya.rape.survey.psychologist/.
 NATO Blasts Tripoli with Series of Airstrikes, AP, 2 Jun. 2011, http://www.foxnews.com/world/2011/06/02/nato-blasts-tripoli-with-series-airstrikes/.
 Libya says NATO attacks on Tripoli kill 31, Reuters, 7 Jun. 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/06/07/us-libya-bombing-tripoli-toll-idUSTRE7565B820110607.
 Diaa Hadid & Mike Corder, Gadhafi Strikes Libya Rebels, NATO Pounds Tripoli, AP, 8 Jun. 2011, available at http://www.timesleader.com/news/Gadhafi-strikes-Libya-rebels-NATO-pounds-Tripoli-.html.
 Ed Pilkington, Xan Rice, Chris Stephen, Richard Norton-Taylor, Gaddafi faces new ICC charges for using rape as weapon in conflict, 9 Jun. 201,1 http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/08/gaddafi-forces-libya-britain-nato.
 White House Defends Legality of US Military Action in Libya, Reuters, 16 Jun. 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jun/16/libya-war-congress-white-house-obama-legality.
 Joshua Norman, Report: Documented Proof of Qaddafi War Crimes, CBS News, 18 Jun. 2011, http://www.cbsnews.com/8301-503543_162-20072301-503543.html.
 NATO Admits Civilian Deaths in Libya Raid, Al Jazeera, 19 Jun. 2011, http://english.aljazeera.net/video/africa/2011/06/201161920139227219.html.
 Secret Graves Found in Libya, Al Jazeera, 19 Jun. 2011, http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/06/2011618233144981353.html.
 Marlise Simons, Charges of War Crimes Brought Against Qaddafi, N.Y. Times, 27 Jun. 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/06/28/world/africa/28libya.html.
 C.J. Chivers, Libyan Rebels Accused of Pillage and Beatings, N.Y. Times, 12 Jul. 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/13/world/africa/13libya.html?ref=europe.
 Ruth Sherlock, The Headless Corpse, the Mass Grave and Worrying Questions about Libya’s Rebel Army, The Telegraph, 20 Jul. 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8650436/The-headless-corpse-the-mass-grave-and-worrying-questions-about-Libyas-rebel-army.html.
 Rania El Gamal, Libyan rebels say commander killed by allied militia, Reuters, 29 Jul. 2011, http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/07/29/us-libya-idUSTRE76Q76620110729.
 Chris Stephen & Haroon Siddique, Libyan rebels fear rift after death of Abdel Fatah Younis, The Guardian, 29 Jul. 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/29/libyan-rebels-rift-death-younis.
 Khamis Gaddafi ‘shown alive on Libyan television,’ The Telegraph, 10 Aug. 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/8692827/Khamis-Gaddafi-shown-alive-on-Libyan-television.html.
 Herve Bar, US launches anti-Kadhafi offensive in Africa, AFP, 9 Aug. 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5iEHOMgf54GFGdViCxL-nLS3pr4og?docId=CNG.c23568239de2d2c9560efb10644f622c.651.
 Rami Al-Shaheibi, NATO: Libya airstrike killed troops, not civilians, AP, 11 Aug. 2011, http://www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5gKEjKx0bB22IW81-NywiqKIlOVJg?docId=8dfaab06752a4b7fac39b9da92a64d1b.
 Mark Tran, Red Cross brands assaults on medics in conflict zones a ‘humanitarian tragedy,’ The Guardian, 10 Aug. 2011, http://www.guardian.co.uk/global-development/2011/aug/10/red-cross-medical-worker-assaults.
 A Final Surge to Tripoli: Taking Control of the City, New York Times, 22 Aug. 2011, http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/08/21/world/africa/libya-graphic.html.
 Rebels say they are gaining ground in Libya; government disputes claim, CNN, 13 Aug. 2011, http://edition.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/africa/08/13/libya.war/.
 Libya: timeline of the conflict, The Telegraph, 22 Aug. 2011, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8714379/Libya-timeline-of-the-conflict.html.